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Download the data layers by following the steps bellow.
Please cite the data as indicated.

Dataset version
Period of layers
Data layers reflecting future conditions were developed under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios of future climate change. These span from a “sustainability” scenario SSP1-1.9 following the target of Paris Agreement of reduced greenhouse gas emissions, to the “fossil-fuelled development” SSP5-8.5 scenario of high emissions and low challenges to adaptation.
Depth of layers
The benthic layers were produced with an interpolation process considering the geographic position and depth of cells, as inferred from a bathymetry layer. Since focal cells included a wide range of depth values, benthic layers are available for the minimum, average and maximum depths.
List of layers
Variable Unit Max Mean Min Lt. Max Lt. Min Range
Ocean temperature ºC
Salinity -
Sea water velocity m.s-1
Sea water direction degree
Nitrate mmol . m-3
Phosphate mmol . m-3
Silicate mmol . m-3
Dissolved molecular oxygen mmol . m-3
Iron mmol . m-3
Primary productivity mmol . m-3
pH -
Chlorophyll mmol . m-3
Sea ice thickness m
Sea ice cover Fraction
Cloud cover %
Mixed layer depth m
Air temperature ºC
Photosynt. Avail. Radiation
Diffuse attenuation m-1
Bathymetry m
Topographic slope -
Topographic aspect -
Topographic position index -
Terrain ruggedness index -

* Lt. for average of the minimum and maximum records per year (e.g., temperature of the warmest month, on average)
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The data available in Bio-ORACLE are documented in two peer reviewed articles that you should cite:
v3.0 Assis, J., Fernández Bejarano, S.J., Salazar, V.W., Schepers, L., Gouvêa, L., Fragkopoulou, E., Leclercq, F., Vanhoorne, B., Tyberghein, L., Serrão, E.A., Verbruggen, H., De Clerck, O. (2024) Bio-ORACLE v3.0. Pushing marine data layers to the CMIP6 Earth system models of climate change research. Global Ecology and Biogeography. DOI: 10.1111/geb.13813

v1.0 Tyberghein L, Verbruggen H, Pauly K, Troupin C, Mineur F, De Clerck O (2012) Bio-ORACLE: A global environmental dataset for marine species distribution modelling. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 272–281. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00656.x

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